Professionals Are Professional for a Reason

Before trying to carry out AC repair in Morris County NJ in your home or office, there are certain aspects of air conditioning systems you should know about. When their air conditioning system breaks down or develops a fault, many people try to fix it themselves without fully understanding the concepts involved. However, it is possible for you to carry out a basic air conditioner service once you understand the principles, although HVAC repair (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) is best left to the professionals. The normal home or office air conditioner works by simple physics, and consists of two discrete units: the condenser and the evaporator.

Spent the Day Picking out the New Stuff for the Bathroom

We went to about three or four places before we found all the stuff we wanted. Beth picked out the new shower doors in Essex county NJ and I was pretty happy that she finally found a place which had the thing that she wanted. She kept telling me what it was supposed to look like, but of course you really do not understand what she is looking for at the first. I did not have a real clue what she meant until I actually saw the thing she was looking for. The place we found it was called Glass Plus it is in Vauxhall NJ.

Important ruling on how much of a proffer you need in order to cross on a prior bad act bearing on veracity and on bias. The takeaway: the standard is “a fairly lenient one”


Keith A. Moore v. United States, No. 12-CF-778 (decided April 30, 2015).

The Players: Chief Judge Washington, Associate Judge Glickman, and Senior Judge Pryor. Opinion for the Court by Judge Glickman; dissenting opinion by Judge Pryor. PDS for Mr. Moore. Trial Judge: Ann O’Regan Keary.

The Facts: In this armed robbery trial, Mr. Moore’s defense was that the complainant, Lorenzo Thomas, fabricated his story that Mr. Moore had stolen $1,000 from him because Mr. Thomas was due in court the next day for a probation revocation hearing for failure to pay restitution, so he needed the cash — or at least a ready excuse for why he could not pay the restitution.

Prior to trial, Mr. Thomas had told the government that he had a lot of cash from working at P.F. Chang’s restaurant. He later recanted that and said the money came from a tax refund and gambling proceeds. The prosecutor obtained a copy of Mr. Thomas’s tax return, which reflected a large refund, primarily due to Mr. Thomas claiming his little sister as a dependent. It occurred to the prosecutor that the tax credit might not have been appropriate because Mr. Thomas and his little sister both lived with their mother, who was a federal employee and the more natural person to claim the child as a dependent. In discussing the tax return with Mr. Thomas, the prosecutor told him that “there was no understanding between him and the government about whether claiming his sister as a dependent was appropriate.”

Issue: The defense sought to cross-examine Mr. Thomas about whether he had committed tax fraud on two bases: (1) the defense argued that a false representation on a tax return was a proper subject on cross-examination because it was a prior bad act bearing on Mr. Thomas’s veracity with respect to the contested issues at trial; and (2) cross-examination about the suspected false tax return was probative of Mr. Thomas’s bias because the prosecutor had discussed with him a possible problem with the tax return, and he may have therefore harbored a subjective belief that he was in jeopardy of prosecution, which would give him a testimonial bias.

The judge precluded all inquiry about the tax return, ruling that the matter was too convoluted because it required knowledge of tax rules, Mr. Thomas had used a professional tax preparer and did not complete the return himself, and that even if the return reflected dishonesty, that was not as probative as other fertile grounds the defense had for cross-examination.

Holding: The trial court erred in precluding the desired cross-examination because the defense proffer was adequate to require it on both theories — prior bad act bearing on veracity, and bias. The error was harmful at least with respect to the former purpose because Mr. Thomas’s veracity as to the source of the money he claimed the defendant took from him was hotly contested at trial.

Important Rules and Points for Practitioners:

This is an important case on the doctrine of prior bad act bearing on veracity. This opinion clarifies that the standard for a defense proffer to permit such inquiry is a “fairly lenient one,” the very same standard as for bias cross-examination (with which judges and practitioners are more familiar). The proffer need suggest only a “well-reasoned suspicion” that “the witness committed a veracity-impeaching bad act or is biased in the manner asserted.” Here, the defense proffer of suspicious circumstances warranted permitting the cross-examination as a matter of law, although the defense could not definitively prove dishonesty: although the tax return was prepared by a professional, it included an assertion that the witness provided the factual information that permitted the tax credit; it was undisputed that the witness would not be allowed to take the tax credit if his mother’s adjusted gross income (AGI) that year was higher than his AGI; the witness’s AGI was only $9,245; his mother was a federal employee, so it is likely that her AGI was higher; therefore it is “quite a reasonable suspicion” that the witness provided false information to the tax preparer for personal gain. This was sufficient. SF

Eureka! Exclusionary rule does not apply in a cold case solved by DNA evidence obtained through an unconstitutional but “good faith” search by a prison employee.

Shepardson R. Blair v. United States, No. 12-CF-1351 (decided May 7, 2015)

Players: Associate Judges Blackburne-Rigsby and Thompson, Senior Judge Steadman. Opinion by Judge Thompson. PDS for Mr. Blair. Judges: Thomas J. Motley (motion judge), Ronna Lee Beck (trial judge)


Based on DNA evidence that linked him to the sexual assault of C.H., Mr. Blair was convicted of first-degree sexual abuse and assault with significant bodily injury.

Issue 1:

While Mr. Blair was incarcerated at a federal prison in 2005 for a DC first-degree theft conviction, a Bureau of Prisons employee drew a sample of his blood so that his DNA profile could be uploaded to a database run by the FBI. Although the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act (“DNA Act”) authorized BOP to collect DNA from inmates convicted of “qualifying” DC offenses, the DNA Act did not authorize it to collect Mr. Blair’s blood in 2005 because the DC government had not yet made first-degree theft a qualifying offense. The FBI discovered in 2009 that Mr. Blair’s DNA matched that of the man who assaulted C.H. in 2005. The FBI shared this information with MPD, and Mr. Blair was arrested for the 2005 assault. In 2011, the trial court issued a warrant compelling Mr. Blair to allow MPD to take another DNA sample. Probable cause to support that warrant depended on the DNA match obtained using the 2005 sample. At trial, the government introduced the DNA evidence derived from the 2011 sample, which, like the 2005 sample, linked Mr. Blair to the 2005 assault.
Assuming that BOP’s collection of the 2005 DNA sample violated the Fourth Amendment, did the trial court err by declining to apply the exclusionary rule and permitting MPD to collect a second sample based solely on information derived from the 2005 sample?

Holding 1:

No.  First, BOP likely acted in good faith when it took the 2005 DNA sample, mainly because: (a) defense counsel acknowledged that he “did not ‘know of any’ bad faith” on the part of BOP; and (b) although the DC government had not yet designated all DC Code felonies (including first-degree theft) as qualifying offenses for purposes of the DNA Act, Congress had already designated all federal felonies as qualifying offenses, suggesting that the unconstitutional search resulted from a negligent, but not bad faith, failure to recognize this difference.

Second, the trial court “reasonably concluded” that the deterrence-related benefits from suppressing the fruits of the 2005 DNA sample would not outweigh its costs, mainly because: (a) DC law was later revised to include “any felony” as a qualifying offense under the DNA Act, obviating any need to “deter BOP personnel from again making th[is] mistake”; (b) several years elapsed between the collection of the 2005 blood sample and the trial; and (c) BOP personnel were “not adjuncts to the law enforcement team.”

You should be able to distinguish this opinion by emphasizing that its holding depends on its peculiar facts, including that prison staff rather than police conducted the unlawful search.

Issue 2:

To be convicted of first-degree sexual abuse, the defendant must force the complainant to engage in a sexual act that involves (in relevant part) “penetration, however slight, of the . . . vulva of another by a penis.” Here, C.H. testified that the assailant pushed “into [her] vagina” with his “non-erect penis” and “tried several times to push himself further inside.” The doctor who treated C.H. after the assault found “a significant amount” of debris in C.H.’s vulva.

Was this evidence insufficient to establish that the assailant penetrated C.H.’s vulva?

Holding 2:

No. C.H.’s testimony that the assailant pushed “into [her] vagina” and tried to push “further inside,” together with the “violent nature of the attack,” permitted the jury to infer that he penetrated her “vulva, if not her vagina,” even though his penis was not erect.

Issue 3:

During the assault, C.H.’s head was repeatedly banged against the ground. The doctor who assessed her at the hospital testified that she had abrasions “all over [her] body,” evidence of “trauma” around her eyes, “a lot” of tenderness in her jaw, neck pain, and a “severe headache.” The doctor ordered CAT scans of C.H.’s head, face, and mandible because he was “concerned” that she might have a “significant head injury,” and he ordered an X-ray of her neck to “rule out bone injury.” These tests apparently found no sign of internal injuries.

Was this evidence insufficient to prove the significant-bodily-injury element of felony assault?

Holding 3:

No. The CAT scans and X-ray the doctor ordered for C.H.’s head and neck, together with the bruising “all over [her] body,” sufficed to show that her injuries were significant, though the issue was a close (“less than obvious”) one.

The Court’s emphasis on diagnostic tests is somewhat at odds with prior decisions holding that significant bodily injury includes only injuries that require medical treatment rather than diagnosis. The opinion should thus be read narrowly to avoid conflict with the Court’s past decisions. The opinion itself suggests several limits to its holding: (1) the tests here were aimed at detecting injury to particularly sensitive body parts, the head and neck; (2) there was medical testimony that the tests were needed to rule out internal injuries; (3) the Court relied not only on the tests, but also on evidence of bruising “all over” C.H.’s body; and (4) the Court recognized that the issue was close despite all these factors.  JM

“Is that a gun in your pocket, or are you just happy to see me?”

Michael A. Hartley v. United States, No. 13-CF-653 (decided May 14, 2015).

Players: Chief Judge Washington, Associate Judges Blackburne-Rigsby and Easterly. Opinion by Chief Judge Washington. William R. Cowden for Mr. Hartley. Trial Judge: J. Michael Ryan.

Facts: On a December afternoon at the Rhode Island Metro station, Mr. Hartley attempted to rob James Galloway-Reed of his cell phone. After verbal threats failed to convince Mr. Galloway-Reed to surrender his phone, Mr. Hartley placed his hand in his pocket and stated, “this isn’t a joke, I have a gun.” Unfortunately for Mr. Hartley, Mr. Galloway-Reed did not believe him and began to walk away. Mr. Hartley followed him to an underpass across the street and began to “physically assault” him. A bystander called the police, who arrived and apprehended Mr. Hartley at the scene. No gun was recovered from Mr. Hartley’s person or the surrounding area.

Mr. Galloway-Reed suffered “minor cuts to his face, a black eye, and swelling.”

Issue 1: “[W]hether placing one’s hand in one’s pocket and pointing it at someone while verbally threatening to shoot them if they do not comply with one’s demand is sufficient evidence to satisfy the District’s while armed enhancement statute.”

Holding: No, given these facts. The Court distinguishes an earlier case, Smith v. United States, 777 A.2d 801 (D.C. 2001), in which the Court found sufficient evidence that the defendant was armed where he had robbed a restaurant with his hand in his pocket, asserting that he had a gun, and was not apprehended on the scene. Smith is distinguished based on the facts that (a) Mr. Galloway-Reed testified that he did not believe Mr. Hartley had a gun, and (b) Mr. Hartley was immediately apprehended and no gun was found on his person or nearby. Thus, there was no basis for the jury to infer that Mr. Hartley had a firearm.

In a footnote, the court also distinguished this case from those in which a witness perceives a physical manifestation of a weapon, imitation or otherwise, that could reasonably be mistaken for a firearm at the time that the crime was committed.

Issue 2/ Holding: The government conceded that the evidence was insufficient to support Mr. Hartley’s conviction for felony assault because Mr. Galloway-Reed did not suffer significant bodily injury.  CP

Supreme Court Announces Scienter Requirement for Federal Threats, Has Implications for D.C.

In Elonis v. United States, the Supreme Court recently decided the question of what mental state is required for a person to be guilty under the federal threats statute. Anthony Elonis had posted a series of amateur rap lyrics on Facebook that his ex-wife and co-workers perceived as threatening. He argued that he could not be guilty of threats because the rap lyrics were creative expression, and not intended to threaten.

The federal threats statute makes it a crime to transmit in interstate commerce “any communication containing any threat…to injure the person of another.” 18 U.S.C. 875(c). On its face, the statute only requires that the communication contain a threat. The statute does not contain any explanation of the mental state required for a person to be guilty under this statute, and the parties disagreed on this point. The government argued that a defendant only need to intend that the words be communicated, and that the defendant understood those words. According to the government, it would be enough that a “reasonable person” would understand the words to be a threat, even if the defendant did not intend to issue a threat. Mr. Elonis argued that this amounted to a “negligence” standard and that such an interpretation would undermine the principle that “wrongdoing must be conscious to be criminal.”

The Court rejected the government’s position and agreed with Mr. Elonis. It found that, based on the general criminal law principle that a defendant must be “blameworthy in mind,” a defendant must either intend to issue a threat, or communicate the words knowing that it will be viewed as a threat, for his conduct to be criminal. Since the jury instructions in Mr. Elonis’ case allowed a finding of guilt based on the lower, “negligence” standard, the Court reversed Mr. Elonis’ convictions. The Court did not decide the issue of whether a finding of recklessness would be sufficient.

Although this case is not technically binding on D.C. courts, since it addresses the federal statute, it will be highly persuasive authority here. The D.C. statutes, like the federal statute, do not contain any intent requirement. D.C. practitioners can argue that as in Elonis, general criminal law principles require that a person must intentionally or knowingly threaten in order to be guilty of a crime, and that it is not enough that a reasonable person would have perceived the communication as a threat. Although the D.C. Court of Appeals has held that a person may be guilty of threats regardless of whether he intended his words to be threatening (or even was reckless in this regard), the Supreme Court’s rationale in Elonis undermines this precedent and thus opens the door to defense arguments that an intent to threaten is required.  SN

RBI Proposal on Rupee Linked Bonds

In the past, rupee denominated bond issuances have essentially been available to multilateral institutions, of which the International Finance Corporation (IFC) had availed of them. Now, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has announced a draft framework, which allows Indian companies as well to tap this avenue for raising debt. Indian corporates that are eligible to avail of external commercial borrowings (ECBs) will now be able to issue rupee-linked bonds overseas in any jurisdiction that is Financial Action Task Force (FATF) compliant. There is a cap on pricing of the bonds in that the coupon should not be more than 500 basis points above the sovereign yield of corresponding Government of India security. Other terms such as requirement of regulatory approvals and end-use restrictions are similar to ECBs. Investors in such bonds are allowed to hedge both currency risk as well as credit risk through permitted derivative products in the domestic market. There are more relaxed requirements for international financial institutions issuing such bonds depending upon whether or not the proceeds are being deployed in India.

This proposal could have the effect of expanding fund-raising opportunities for Indian corporates, especially to fulfill financial demand in sectors such as infrastructure. This is particularly the case given the relative shallowness of the domestic bond market. At the same time, the tight restrictions such as cap on pricing and other conditions that are pegged to the ECB policy may act as a dampener against significant inflow of funds through this route.

What Should Start-up Founders Know About Rule 701?

In my opinion, all startup founders should be familiar with and actually understand Rule 701 under the Securities Act because this is precisely how they get to issue equity (restricted stock or options) in their startup to their employees, officers, directors, consultants and advisors in order to provide them with the right kind of incentives. Rule 701 allows startups to do so in a private placement, without registration with the SEC, and with minimum compliance requirements (unless the aggregate offerings exceed $5 million in any 12-month period). One important thing to keep in mind is that the exemption applies only to the registration requirements of the Securities Act; other provisions, most importantly the antifraud provisions, remain fully applicable, which means that any disclosures made by the company may not be materially false or misleading.

Where does Rule 701 fit in?

As you know, all issuances of securities by a company have to be registered with the SEC unless a particular offering falls under an exemption from registration. You are familiar by now with Rule 506 that provides an exemption from registration for securities issued in a private placement. Well, Rule 701 provides an exemption from registration (also on a federal level) for securities that private companies may issue as equity compensation to its employees, directors, officers, consultants and advisors.

Principal requirements and restrictions relating to a Rule 701 offering.

1. Only the issuer (i.e. the company) may use the Rule 701 exemption. This rule is not available for resales.

2. The company has to be a private company (i.e., not be subject to reporting requirements under Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act). But a company that files Exchange Act reports on a voluntary basis or in accordance with a contractual obligation, is eligible to use Rule 701.

3. The persons to whom offers and sales of securities may be made pursuant to the Rule 701 exemption include employees (including employees of majority-owned subsidiaries), directors, general partners, trustees, where the issuer is a business trust, officers, consultants and advisors. There are many SEC no-action letters regarding who are the eligible recipients of Rule 701 equity (there is some uncertainty about who are the eligible advisors and consultants), so startups should check with their attorney to ensure that they do not issue Rule 701 equity to ineligible persons.

4. Securities offered under Rule 701 are “restricted” securities, and cannot be resold unless they are registered with the SEC or are resold pursuant to another exemption (such as Rule 144).

5. Offering and sale under Rule 701 must still comply with any applicable state “blue sky” laws.

6. Rule 701 equity may be offered and sold only pursuant to a written compensatory benefit plan (or compensation contract). The Rule defines “compensatory benefit plan” as “any purchase, savings, option, bonus, stock appreciation, profit sharing, thrift, incentive, deferred compensation, pension or similar plan.” This means that the startup should invest into developing an equity compensation plan early on in its existence.

7. The Rule is not applicable to transactions entered into for capital-raising purposes.

8. For equity offered and sold to consultants or advisors, several special rules apply. The Rule is only available to them if they are 1) natural persons; and 2) they provide bona fide services to the company which are not connected to any offering or sale of securities in a capital-raising transaction and which are not intended to promote or maintain a market in the issuer’s securities (whether directly or indirectly).

What else do you need to know about Rule 701?

1. Aggregation Limits

Over the course of any rolling 12-month period, the total aggregate sales price or amount of securities sold may not exceed the greatest of:

1) $1 million;

2) 15% of the issuer’s total assets, as measured on the date of its most recent balance sheet (if no older than its last fiscal year end); or

3) 15% of the outstanding amount of the class of securities being offered and sold in reliance on the Rule (again as measured as of the date of its most recent balance sheet).

There is no (theoretical) limit to the amount of money that can be raised pursuant to Rule 701, provided that whatever amount raised remains within the aforementioned limits. However, there are some enhanced disclosure requirements when the aggregate sales price or amount of securities sold exceeds $5 million in any consecutive 12-month period.

2. Disclosure Requirements

1. For aggregate offerings equal to or less than $5 million, the company must deliver to the recipients only a copy of the compensatory benefit plan or compensation contract.

2. For aggregate offerings exceeding $5 million, the company must, in addition to a copy of the compensation plan/contract, provide in a reasonable amount of time prior to sale:

  • A summary of the material terms of the plan (or, if subject to ERISA, a copy of the summary plan description required by that Act);
  • Information about risk factors associated with the investment in the offered securities; and
  • Financial statements (prepared in accordance with GAAP) required by Part F/S of Form 1-A under Regulation A, including at a minimum the company’s latest balance sheet as well as statements of income, cash flows, and stockholder equity for the preceding two fiscal years (or for the period of the issuer’s existence, if less than such a period). Note that audited financial statements must be provided only if the company has already prepared them; the company need not undergo a financial audit to comply specifically with these disclosure requirements.


Rule 701 can be a very useful and relatively inexpensive tool for start-up companies wishing to provide equity compensation to their employees, directors, and others. There are no SEC reporting requirements, and the disclosure requirements are, in general, not particularly onerous. At the same time, the Rule does impose a number of limitations and exclusions which the company must carefully abide by. The company should always have a knowledgeable attorney to develop or review any proposed Rule 701 compensation plan to ensure compliance with its requirements.

This article is not a legal advice, and was written for general informational purposes only.  If you have questions or comments about the article or are interested in learning more about this topic, feel free to contact its author, Arina Shulga.  Ms. Shulga is the founder of Shulga Law Firm, P.C., a New York-based boutique law firm specializing in advising individual and corporate clients on aspects of business, corporate, securities, and intellectual property law.

Honda Cars – A review by Autoportal India

The Honda Cars India Limited is the fourth largest car maker in India. The HCL has many world class Japanese make cars in their Indian portfolio. The sedan Honda City and the Compact sedan Honda Amaze have found places in the list of the top twenty bestselling cars of India. Few of their models like the sedan Accord and the compact sedan Civic have been discontinued. The hatchback Jazz withdrawn in 2009 has been re-launched recently.

The Honda Brio is the cheapest Honda car in India. This hatchback launched in 2011 has 8 petrol variants (2 having auto transmission) priced Rupees 4.21 to 6.79 lakh. This 3610 m long car gives mileages of 18.9 kmpl with an 1198 cc engine. The top variants have 2 air bags, ABS, EBD, a manual AC, electric body coloured ORVMs and a 2 Din music system with touch controls, GPS and Bluetooth connectivity.

Among the Honda cars the City tops in popularity. The City launched originally in 1998 is still going strong in the Indian market. The City is available in 8 petrol and 7 diesel variants priced Rupees 7.53 to 11.54 lakh with 2 automatic petrol variants. Top variants have 2 air bags, ABS, EBD, an automatic AC, a rear parking sensor with camera, leather seats, body coloured electrical ORVMs with turn indicators and a 2 Din music system with Bluetooth connectivity.

The hatchback Jazz re-launched in July 2015 comes in 7 petrol and 5 diesel variants priced Rupees 5.31 to 8.59 lakh. The Jazz gives top mileages of 18.7 and 27.3 kmpl for the petrol and the diesel variants. The top variants have touch screen controls, GPS and Bluetooth connectivity.

The petrol SUV Honda CR- V has 2 auto transmission and 1 manual transmission variants. This 5-seater SUV is priced Rupees 21.09 to 25.09 lakh and gives a mileage of 13.7 kmpl. Top variant of this SUV has 6 air bags, an automatic AC, rear parking sensor with camera, leather seats, body coloured electrical ORVMs with turn indicators and a 2 Din music system with a touch screen, GPS and Bluetooth connectivity.

The Honda Amaze launched in 2013 is a sub-4 metre sedan in petrol and diesel priced Rupees 5 to 7 lakh. With a 1.2 litre engine it gives a mileage of 18 and 25.8 kmpl for the petrol and the diesel variants respectively. The MPV Mobilio launched in 2014 is a 7-seater priced Rupees 8.82 to 11.95 lakh is having 4 petrol and 6 diesel variants with mileages of 17.3 and 24.2 kmpl for the petrol and the diesel respectively.

In 2015 the compact SUV Vezel, the Brio SUV and the refreshed CR-V are expected from the HCIL.

For more information on new cars & bikes log on to Cars expert &



If you’re a leader in the global political arena and want to be successful in this field, then it is best suitable for you

Acquiring an online master in political administration could prompt supporting political offices and upholding for extremist gatherings.

You’re more prone to discover political administration, political campaign administration, and connected legislative issues master degree programs offered at various universities throughout the world.

About objectives of the program:

In these sorts of programs, you’ll take courses that cover the fundamentals of political battle administration. These courses talk about your conceivable future role in molding public approach and the path in which historical events and current happenings affect the field of political administration. Classes in research and insights will empower you to utilize measured data in arranging political methods. You’ll likewise think about communication standards, for example, arguments, organizing, public speaking, Congressional affirming, and promoting. Morals, authority, raising support, and crusade association are likewise covered.

Facilities of online learning:

On the off chance that you do enlist in an online program, you can generally keep your present place of employment and deal with your own particular schedule, however deadlines and due dates still apply.

Online programs commonly permit you to win the same degree as you would in an on-campus setting. Emails, Message boards, virtual classroom interface system, and other Internet-based programs give you access to professors, classmates, and course materials whenever the timing is ideal. You can also take advantage of technical and academic support your online learning system.

Professions after GW Online master degree in political management program:


Seeking after a master’s degree in political administration gives you a certification expected to seek after an assortment of jobs in governmental issues and public strategy, from universal legislative issues to campaigning and support, advertising, public relations and constituent campaigns. You may be contracted as a surveyor, crusade administrator, political chief, and communications expert or college lecturer. Naturally, political administration graduates incorporate political affiliations, consultancy firms, higher inclining foundations, workmanship focuses and social advocacy associations.

  • Overseeing Fund-raising :

Raising support chief’s plan and direction exercises to request trusts for running political battles and actualizing uncommon tasks. For instance, raising support administrators who work for a political party may compose meetings or set up accounts and sites for gathering donation. These experts may work with financial specialists to guarantee the raised stores are planned suitably. At the point when important, gathering pledges administrators supervise the procuring of battle apparatus, for example, planes, cars and public address systems.

  • Exhorting Clients:

Acting as a political advisor obliges you have a state-of-the-art handle on political matters in light of the fact that your customers could incorporate people running for state workplaces. Political advisors prompt customers on issues, for example, voter surveying, field techniques, media relations and opposition methodologies. Consulting firms are additionally potential managers for political specialists.

  • Campaigning Issues :

A lobbyist speaks to the hobbies of particular constituents to administrators. For instance, if a local authority actualizes approaches that don’t speak to the hobbies of the lobbyist’s association, he may facilitate sorting out exhibitions and hold question and answer sessions to pass on disappointment against the strategy. Lobbyists who work in state offices are recognized as the government issues facilitators.

  • Teaching Students :

With a master’s degree in political administration, you can function as a college/University lecturer, training and sustaining college understudies who need to work on legislative issues. Political administration teachers additionally create and audit instructive programs and participate in research to get more data on points, for example, political authority, battle methodology and emergency administration.

The program can set you up to work in gathering pledges, battling, campaigning, grassroots sorting out, and other political administration territories. This educational program is regularly outfitted towards understudies who originate from a mixture of instruction and expert foundations, including communications, advertising, political science, history, and business administration.

Need For The Degree In Social Work

People can enjoy lots of advantages when they are studying in online. It’s depends on the abilities of the student that they can study in traditional or online classes. Many students prefer to study in online they can save more money in online when comparing to traditional classes. They can save their travelling expense and students can study part time and full time depends on their work. It is more useful for people those who are working they can attend evening classes on weekend classes. If they are studying in regular institution they need to attend the class and if there is lack of attendance they will not allow the student to write exams. And students need to reach the college on time if they fail so they will cut the attendance. Students need to face lot of disadvantages in regular college. But in online classes no attendance problem. An online study is more convenient for students. They can attend the classes at their comfort.

One of the main advantage in online class is student can attend their class from any part of the world. Students who are staying far away from the universities it is not possible for them to attend the college. But in online class they can attend class from any part of the world. Many people are doing their master degrees in part time so they can continue their work as well as they can get their degree that they wish to attain. Rutgers online social work masters program is more popular among people. As a leading university people like to complete their degree in their online course. And they are offering part time and full time studies for the students. This will be useful for both students and workers. Depends on their work they can join the part time and full time classes. Students can get valued knowledge if they complete the course. And there are many options in social service master degree they can select the course in which they like to specialize. Some people like to study the clinical social service whereas some others are interest in family services.

For all types of problems there are special counseling and guidance. Students those who are specialize in particular subject can handle all the cases in that department. And if they got the master degree in social work they can become the director of the social work. And people those are already engaging in social work can complete the online master social work which will help them to handle big cases. Social workers need to help people from all ages. They need to take care of the children’s and adults and at time they need to give importance for old people. There are many family problems which results in divorce and much child abuse case are common. And these social workers those who complete the master degree can handle such cases and they can give confidence for the people to come back to their life. They can enlighten their life with lovable words.

Participate In Chick-Fil-A Survey To Get Free Chicken Sandwich During Next Visit


About Chick-Fil-A Feedback Survey:

Chick-Fil-A offers fast food like breakfast, kid’s meal, drinks, desserts, salad and wraps and many other food items. The Chick-Fil-A restaurant conducts a feedback survey online for its customer to get their feedbacks and experience so as to improve their food quality along with service. The major purpose behind gathering this feedback is to understand the need and wants of the customers and hence to solve the difficulties faced by their customers in easy manner. This company also provides a validation code as a significance of reward for participation after completing the survey. With the validation code on your receipt, you can able to get free sandwich during your next visit. The whole process related to the feedback survey will be completed within short time period. Moreover, the survey must be finished within 2 days from the day of visiting restaurant.

Requirements for Chick-fil-A Survey:

  1. You need to have computer with internet connection
  2. You need have receipt during your earlier visit to restaurant
  3. You must have read the conditions regarding participation

Instruction To Participate In Survey:

  • Visit the website my cfa visit via internet connectivity
  • In the homepage of the website, you will asked to choose the language like English or Spanish
  • Enter the serial code available in the receipt which you got during visiting restaurant for purchasing meal or any other eatable items for the restaurant
  • After that, click ‘start’ button to take up the survey.
  • The questions will be opened in the next page
  • Provide your answers to the questions asked and the questions will be relevant to your shopping experience
  • After finishing the survey, you will obtain justification code
  • After that use that code during your next visit to the restaurant to get free sandwich
  • Use the code before getting invalid.

Overall Verdict:

Company carries out online surveys for its customers to get feedback regarding their services and products which in turn assist the company to enhance the quality of their food services. The essential purchase behind conducting this survey is to acquire the level of satisfaction of their customer regarding their products and services that company provide to its customers. Those who take part in this survey will get exciting prices and free sandwich during your next visit to the restaurant. Take up the survey to provide your option and feedback and win free chicken sandwich at the time of next visit towards Chick-fil-A Restaurant.

We Have Fallen In Love With Ourselves

There are two reasons the advertising industry is besotted with the web

The corporate fat boys love it because it came along at exactly the right time to provide an exciting new thing to sell, just as the agency business was losing its mojo.

The rank and file love it because it is quickly becoming the most advertising and marketing-controlled medium in history.

We — the marketing industry — are running the web. It is the first major medium that is completely under the thumb of advertisers and marketers.

We used to have some control over TV and radio. Our advertising choices about what to support with our clients’ ad dollars influenced what programmers programmed. But we never had hands-on control of the actual content.

In radio and print media the same was true. We influenced the content with our buying, but we didn’t control or create the content.

Radio, tv, or print was always a medium first, and then a marketing vehicle. The web is not. The web is quickly evolving into a marketing vehicle first, and, oh yeah, it’s also a communication medium.

It is impossible to do anything on the web without being assaulted by marketing or advertising.

It was possible to watch 12 minutes of uninterrupted sitcom before a spot came on. You could sometimes listen to 5 songs in a row before you heard a radio spot. But not with the web.

You can’t go 30 seconds on the web without being interrupted.

I have commented previously on how the web has similarities to a super-charged Yellow Pages. The Yellow Pages was a marketing gimmick masquerading as a medium. The web is becoming very much the same thing.

On the web, every move you make, every step you take, everything you watch or read is interrupted by advertising or marketing. We ad geeks love the web because we don’t just create the ads, we create the ocean they swim in. We’ve never before had this kind of power for our meager talents.

The web didn’t start this way. But it is evolving into a non-stop, always-on marketing circus. It’s what makes it nauseating, and — to us in the industry — irresistible.

The Good Things Offered by Forex Trading Alert

Forex trading alert is a snippet of information which is passed on to the forex trader in a way in which he can interpret it successfully and use it for trading in the forex market (read more at Fact is, the Forex trading alert comes in a wide range, nonetheless most of them are based on the standard tools of fundamental analysis and technical analysis.
There is huge difference among fundamental analysis and technical analysis. The former talks about utilization of tools like charts, graphs and other pictographs, while the latter, is all about formulas and mathematical concepts making sure that the trend in the market can be predicted. Examples of the formulas utilized in technical analysis are the correlation formula, the forex pivot points as well as the risk-reward ratio. With that in mind, the forex trader need to opt for forex alerts that is easy to interpret. In case a forex trader isn’t capable of analyzing the information presented, then there they will not be able to get the most out of the information. It is essential for a trader to understand the technicalities in forex trading alert.  
The forex trading alert can determine various trends like the volatility, risk management, currency movements and also the future market trend. The movement in the currency can be estimated by estimating both the opening and the closing prices of a particular currency on a previous day so that it can be contrasted appropriately with the prices for that day.  
While the risk management is calculated by a risk probability calculator. Within this, it will be easy for a trader to know the risks involved and will have an idea on how much the gains and loses will be.   Lastly, the trading alert is a great tool in a forex trader’s arsenal which would guide him on a way to success by aiding him to conclude rewarding deals and reap a rich reward in return. So what are you waiting for? Get the Forex Trading Alert Program today!  You can be guaranteed that things will get better!


is a photographic artist from Rochester, New York.

John has an extensive and varied career in the photographic arts.   Since working in arts education at The School of Visual Arts NYC and Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Photographic Arts & Sciences, John now devotes his time and talents to his own freelance commercial and fine art photography projects.   John has participated consistently in  public exhibitions since 1973 with works in numerous publications and private and public collections including Wallace Memorial Library Archives, George Eastman House, Monroe Community Hospital, Russian Fine Art Photographers Union and Iron County Museum.
John explains himself on his website in 10 points:
1. Born in Michigan’s Upper Peninsular:  Became a Yooper.
2. Got his first camera, age 10
3. Joined a MASH unit (US Army) and was trained as an X-Ray technician
4. Stationed in Germany during the Cold War
5. Studied photography at Rochester Institute of Technology, BFA Degree
6. Freelanced in New York City shooting magazines & ad agencies
7. Began teaching career at the School of Visual Arts in NYC
8. Accepted a teaching position at RIT which led to Tenure in the
School of Photographic Arts & Sciences
9. Quit working at RIT (early retirement)
10. Continues freelancing in photography, doing things he’s always wanted to do.
John’s contribution to the Personal Histories exhibition is a touching and intriguing entry entitled
“All My Love, Mike”.
It is a collection of images and text on loose pages housed in a hand made clam-shell box.
“Dad was drafted in 1942.  He was a surgeon.  First he was sent to Texas to train with other doctors in an Army Hospital unit.  Mom followed him there.  When he was sent to the South Pacific she went back home to Michigan.  For Christmas in 1944 she traveled to Denver to stay with relatives for a few months.  Every day, as much as possible, they exchanged letters.  Mom would enclose pictures, mostly of their new son, me, which he was eager to see.
After their deaths, within a few months of each other, I found Dad’s letters and Mom’s pictures hidden in separate places.  The pictures I examined immediately but held the letters for years before I was able to read them.  This book is a tribute to the love, respect and longing I witnessed in the letters.
This book was created in 2014 over a period of about 3 months.  I am responsible for all scanning, photography and assembly.  After some deliberation I decided that the pages should be loose and in a box as the original letters and pictures were.
The text was scanned from letters to my mother (70 total) covering dates from September 1944 to February 1945 (the only ones I have).  The pictures were scanned from snapshots found in a book where Dad had kept them.  The backgrounds used in some of the pages were created in the studio.  Text, pictures and backgrounds were assembled and printed from InDesign and printed to archival standards.  The box was created with Canapetta Bookcloth and Flanders British Tan bonded leather, also to archival standards.”

Feature Artist – JEN CONDE


is an artist and graphic designer living on a pacific coastal waterway south of Brisbane, Australia.

She exhibits prints, paintings and artists books in her solo and group exhibitions held across Australia and internationally.  She has won various awards, including ‘Best of Show’, Rotary Art Spectacular 2008, ‘Best Overall’, Aveo Art Show 2010 and has work in the National Gallery of Australia print collection.

Jen has illustrated a number of books for local authors and is an active member of local artists and writers groups.

She holds a Diploma of Fine Arts from the Brisbane Institute of Art and a Diploma of Visual Communications from the Queensland College of Art.

Jen’s  contribution to the Personal Histories exhibition  is a mixed media and calligraphy artists book made on Hahnemühle 250gsm paper entitled “The Netmaker”:

My artist book is about a poem written by early Brisbane poet, teacher and opera critic ‘Val Vallis’ (1916-2008). 

Val Vallis gave me permission to use his poem “The Netmaker” which is about his father, a fishing net maker who worked as a wharf lumper and fisherman.  “The Netmaker” is the poet’s lyric ode to the memories of his father mending and making his nets.  Val died a few years ago and this exhibition is a good opportunity to remember him and his poetry but also because the poem is about his own father and the nets he made. 



An Epidemic of Tunnel Vision

Something has become very obvious in the past 10 or so years.  At the risk of sounding like an old fogey, I’ll just generalize and say it has to do with people younger than me.  I say this because I can’t quite pinpoint where it begins.

Younger people,  with the GAZILLIONS of tech devices they have  at their fingertips, have become victims of a severe form of historical tunnel vision.  When I say history, I don’t mean history like in  history books.  Not the type of history you were tested on in school– although with the cuts and changes in school curriculums, social studies lessons are severely lacking– but that’s a rant for another day.  I call it tunnel vision because  it seems to me, that many times younger people don’t look beyond the tunnel of their own lives and experiences, or those of their immediate contemporaries.

The type of history I refer to is pop culture history; movie history, TV history, music history, etc.  Anything that has occurred beyond 10 years ago, if you bring it up in conversation, results in the faces of those you are engaged in conversation with to either glaze over, or screw up in  such a way as if to say…”What are you, like 100?”

For the record, I’m not 100, I’m not even 50.  When did younger people check out of society to the point where,  if something did not exist before they were born, they have no knowledge of it, or better yet, have a distain for it!  I am not silly enough to generalize and say ALL younger people are afflicted with this lack of sociological awareness .  Let’s be clear, I’m not talking about teenagers.  By their very definition, teenagers are supposed to look at you like something from the caveman days if you’re over 25.  No, I’m talking about twenty somethings, and sorry to say, once in a while a thirty something.

I don’t expect younger people to know about aspects of the culture from my generation as well

Ella Fitzgerald

as Ido, because they did not experience it.  The same can be said for my parent’s generation,  and their parent’s,  and so on and so on.  HOWEVER,  I have some sort of working knowledge of people, events, and things from before my time.   Was I around to know of the first movie stars?  No, but I am familiar with some of their names.   Do I view silent movies on a regular basis?  No, but I’ve seen a few of  them.  Do I only  read books exclusively  by Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald,  Lewis Carroll, Emily Bronte…stop me I’m on a roll…when I have not been required to read them?  Not exclusively, but I have re-read many of them after leaving school. What’s a victrola?  An early record player….ipod.   What’s a wringer washer?  An early washing machine…no dryers, clotheslines!  Do you know what ragtime music is, or scat, or big band?   Can you name any of the most famous musicians or singers of the 30s, 40s, or 50s?  Do you know Doris Day, Scott Joplin or Ella Fitzgerald?
I try to keep this in perspective and think of when I was their age, and go back 20 years.  Did I  SERIOUSLY know about anything  I’m ranting about at that age.  YES.

I can’t with a clear conscience blame the younger people.  Who, you may ask, do I blame?   Maybe I should whisper this so as not to tick off my own generation… I blame their parents!  Excuse my while I speak to them exclusively.  “Hey you guys, when did you stop talking to your kids about your life?”  The music, movies, books, TV and movie stars, news events, new inventions, anything that happened in our time…did you ever talk to your kids about it?  Did your  parents ever talk to them about the same things of their generation?


Okay, I know, they walked away, eyes rolling like an out of control slot machine, tongues clicking like a yard full of chickens… I’ve heard and seen it all.  WHO CARES!! DO IT ANYWAY!!  Someday, when they are older, someone older than they will attempt to have an intelligent conversation with them, and they will be able to connect with that person because YOU, their WONDERFUL PARENTS imparted the wisdom of your generation on them, and made them better for it.
How did I begin to know about the things of historical pop culture?  My parents and grandparents.  My aunts,  uncles, older friends of my parents.  At parties, or when anyone stopped over to visit, I would sit quietly and listen.  If you’re quiet enough, adults forget you’re there and they say things and talk about things they might not have if you were being a pest and becoming very high maintenance.

My family talked about their lives, past and present.  Some of it boring, some of it PRETTY, PRETTY GOOD!  People talking, and people listening….a lost art.

So, what is the bottom line?  Parents and grandparents,  talk to younger people about your lives.  Let them know how great, or not so great it was “way back then..”  Yes, the young people will fidget, roll their eyes, maybe not believe you.  Keep at it, they need it.  It will rub off!

Kids, don’t be so quick to take off and just be on your own at multi generational gatherings.

Be respectful, be helpful and ASK QUESTIONS!!  Older people LOVE to talk about the old days.  Ask them what they liked to read, watch and listen to when they were your age.  Not familiar with who or what they’re talking about?  Now is the chance to take what you’re good at…technology…and use it to become fascinating and a sparkling conversationalist.   Google it, watch it on YouTube,  read about it on your e-readers!  Then when you’re in a conversation with someone more than 10 years older than you, maybe even an employer, you can sound like an intelligent, well rounded individual.  GET OUT OF THE TUNNEL and LIVE!
About the Author
Histories for Kids, Inc.
Laura Lynch

Terry and Laura Lynch have combined their careers of performance and education
to develop interactive historical portrayal  children’s programs, for school, libraries,
historical societies and park districts that not only educate but entertain.

The one man, interactive presentations give audiences a new, first person perspective
on the people and events that make up our history and culture.

Find out about our latest presentations and workshops.
Remember, history happens when you least expect it!